Sunday, May 29, 2011

Opioids: effects on body

opioid addiction

With the exception of opioid analgesics or just opioid overdose and physical dependence, the effect of most opioids, relatively benign and easily reversible. Greater danger, however, is the use of contaminated needles, as due to an increased risk of hepatitis B and hepatitis C, infectious endocarditis and HIV infection, the latter is one of the leading causes of death among injecting drug users and their sexual partners.
The main effects. Acute digestive disorders - anorexia, constipation, and - due to reduced motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic digestive disorders in injecting drug users depending on the stage is usually due to hepatitis. Stimulation of opiate receptors of the CNS can lead to nausea and vomiting (receptors of the brain stem), blunting of pain perception (receptors of spinal cord, thalamus, okolovodoprovodnogo gray matter), euphoria (the limbic system receptors) and sedation (receptors reticular formation, and striatum). Additives contained in the "street" drugs, can cause a persistent nerve damage, including neuropathy, amblyopia, myelopathy, and leukoencephalopathy. According to at least one study, patients with opioid analgesics or just opioid depedence are available as organic (by CT) and functional (based on psychological tests), changes in the central nervous system caused either by the opioids, or additives, or using dirty needles. Single administration of opioids leads to a reduction in LH and a consequent reduction in testosterone levels, it is a possible cause of decreased sexual desire, celebrated the majority of persons dependent on opioids. Other hormonal changes include reducing the secretion of TSH and increased secretion of prolactin and growth hormone.
Acute respiratory depression caused by opioids, due to the decreased sensitivity of the respiratory center to CO2. This is one of the symptoms of overdose. Individuals with lung function, even lower doses of opioids(opioid analgesics) may cause clinically significant respiratory depression. Changes in the cardiovascular system relatively mild: opioids do not directly affect the heart rate and myocardial contractility, but it is possible orthostatic hypotension, probably due to peripheral vasodilation. The use of contaminated needles leads to bacterial lung and heart valves, the latter may be the cause of embolism, and consequently, stroke.

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